National Association of Military Reserve of Albania


A reserve military unit in Albania is a structure of the Armed Forces with weaponry, equipment, technical means, infrastructure; which receives a minimum of active training, includes maintenance personnel, and is activated and completed with reservist personnel as needed. It is planned that the reserve component is trained and qualified to be able/ready to be used in the active force of the AAF. The source of recruitment - citizens who meet the criteria of the law and soldiers who complete their time in the AAF as required by law. According to plans the reservist component is to be activated in 2023 and by 2027 be able to act with full operational capacities. Annual activities (exercises and training) are decided by the CHOD, the Commanders of the Forces, and the Support according to the program previously approved by the MoD. The Minister of Defence makes the decision concerning engagement in operations and tasks related to civil emergencies or other similar events in accordance with the provisions of the law. The structure of the reserve component is in the planning phase, with 25% of the armed forces made up of the reserves: 8,500 x 25% = 2,100 reserve personnel. The reserve component will be placed in the Forces Commands (LF, AF, NF), the Supporting Commands (Support Commands and the Academy of the Armed Forces) as well as the autonomous units of the Armed Forces. Currently, there is no training for reservists, only experts in different fields from line ministries or different institutes are engaged, to be part of CIMIC Functional Specialist Teams, or to be training according to the objectives of the NATO capacities. The trainings are in the planning process: Integrated with active component training programs; 12-15 (up to 20 days) days per year, individual training program; 2 weeks per year collective training; Individual in- and out-of-country training integrated with individual AF training with USAREUR. The military expenditure in Albania amounts to 1.75% GDP (2023) of the state budget, which varies year by year depending on the budget project.


Austrian Officers Association


According to Art. 79 of the Federal Constitution Act, the Austrian Armed Forces are established according to the principles of an active reserve system (“militia”). Its operational organization predominantly comprises troops that assemble for exercises or missions. The main task of the active-duty elements is to maintain the system, provide trainings and prepare for military operations. The Austrian Armed Forces are composed of four land forces brigades, an air arm, special operations forces and nine federal military commands as a link between the defence forces and civilian authorities. Size of the Military ● Full-time Soldiers: 22,050 (Land Forces 12,200; Air 2,750; Support 7,100) ● Regular Reserve: 33,900 After the compulsory military training of 6 months for all male citizens, the regular reserves train in full battalion formation for two weeks every two years while leadership positions have additional courses (required for certain functions and advancing in ranks) for several days per year. Extracurricular activities (trainings, seminars, deployments, etc.) are usually carried out self-paced throughout the year. Austria is a substantial contributor to the international peace support missions in the Balkans (300 of 3600 troops in Kosovo and 300 of 1100 troops in BiH, also holding the force commander position since 2009). Additional 180 soldiers are deployed to UNIFIL, Lebanon. Austria's foreign and defence policy is governed by its declaration of neutrality, enacted in 1955 as a constitutional act. Austria nevertheless is very committed to international peace support cooperation in NATO PfP, EUFOR and UN-led missions. The military expenditure has been stable at 0.7% GDP (2023) over the past years.


The Royal Belgian National Association of Reserve Officers


The former “mass reserve” concept has been replaced by a “small-scale reserve” as much as possible integrated within the Forces, well trained and deployable on a voluntary basis or within the framework of special commitments, missions or tasks. The need for reservists necessary to complete and reinforce the Belgian Armed Forces has been assessed currently at a maximum of 6 000 posts. The number of trained reservists will be limited at 3 000 functions integrated in active units or Staff level in order to facilitate the functioning and to reinforce units in all circumstances. Reservists can be found in the four military components (Marine, Land, Medical & Air) and as well in the new formed Cyber Command. These reservists (male or female) are former regular soldiers (with 10 years period of military liabilities after the end of service), retired regulars, reservists from the mandatory militia service before 1993 and new voluntary reservists.


Reserve Officers Association


The Bulgarian defence forces consist of: The Joint Forces Command; Ground troops; Air Force; The naval forces; Joint Special Operations Command; Logistics Support Command; Communications and Information Support and Cyber Defence Command. The size of the regular military forces is approximately 37 000. Reserve of the armed forces are Bulgarian citizens with military or other special training, fit for military/wartime service, who in peacetime have voluntarily undertaken to combine military and civilian careers and those who, in wartime, can receive a mobilization assignment, as and equipment voluntarily provided for peacetime and such that may receive a mobilization assignment in wartime. The mission of the reserve is: to complete with prepared and well-equipped personnel and with serviceable equipment the military formations of the armed forces in peacetime and wartime and the structures under Art. 50, para. 2 of the Law on the Defence and Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria to other forces from the national security system of the Republic of Bulgaria in wartime; to maintain the completeness of spare and spare equipment of the military formations of the armed forces during prolonged military operations in wartime. The military expenditure in Bulgaria for 2022 is about 2,5 billions levs, which is 1,73 % of GDP. The plan is in 2024 the military expenditure to be increased and to reach 2% of GDP.


Canadian Armed Forces


The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) is a modern, adaptable, multi-domain force consisting of approx. 64,000 Regular Force and 45,000 Reserve Force members. The force structure of the CAF consists of force generating commands – the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Forces Intelligence Command, and Military Personnel Command – and force employing commands: Canadian Joint Operations Command, Canadian Special Operations Forces Command, and the North American Aerospace Defence Command. The CAF is commanded by a Chief of Defence Staff in a unified National Defence Headquarters. The Reserve Force is composed of CAF members who are enrolled for other than continuous full-time military service. The Reserve Force is based on a long standing “citizen soldier” model and serves both as a strategic and operational resource for the CAF by providing depth and breadth to CAF capabilities, a vital link to communities and to Canadians. While Regular Force members are enrolled for a specified term of service, members of the Reserve force are enrolled for an indefinite period of service and as such volunteer to keep themselves ready for duty if and when necessary. The Reserve Force is comprised of four sub-components: the Primary Reserve (P Res), the Canadian Rangers, the Cadet Organization Administration and Training Service (COATS), and the Supplementary Reserve. Only the Primary Reserve and Canadian Rangers have a role related to CAF operations. The Primary Reserve consists of predominately part-time professional CAF members with a total combined strength of approximately 29,300. Located throughout Canada, Primary Reservists are ready with reasonable notice to conduct or contribute to domestic and international operations to safeguard the defence and security of Canada. This force is fully integrated into the CAF Chain of Command. The Primary Reserve consists of the Naval Reserve, Army Reserve, Air Reserve, Health Service Reserve, Special Operation Forces Reserve, and Judge Advocate General Reserve. Primary Reservists play a crucial role in responding to domestic emergencies, such as during the COVID-19 Pandemic and in response to natural disasters such as floods, ice storms or wild fires. The Primary Reserve has also supported security activities such as during the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. A significant number of reservists also volunteer for full-time service, including on deployed operations such as in Afghanistan, NATO missions, in coalition maritime operations, and UN missions.


The Union of the Croatian Military Officers Associations


The active composition of the Armed Forces exist in peace and in war, and it forms the basis for growth of forces. Mobilization of reserve forces leads to increase overall defensive capabilities of the Armed forces for the implementation of missions and tasks in the country and abroad. Reserve forces consists of two main components, the more numerous which is so-called “listed reserves” (or contractual reserves) and “individual reservists” (1,000 reserve specialists). The third category consists of the “non-listed reserve” (which has not training undergone). All of 18,000 “listed reserve” are part of the Croatian Army and “individual specialist reservists” are the part of units under the Logistics Support Command. Above mentioned “listed reserves” are divided into six infantry regiments, two artillery-missile regiments, one anti-aircraft regiment, one logistics regiment, one engineering battalion and one communications (signals) battalion. Total strength of the Croatian Armed Forces is 15 000 active duty servicemen and 19 000 reservists. The training of reserves consists of two parts. The first one is “pre call-on” (mobilization) training and second is “post call-on” training. The “pre call-on” training consists of 10-day integrated tactical joint training with the active duty servicemen on battle group level within the every three-year cycle. “Post call-on” training is being prepared for the each mission and consists of refreshment earlier gained military skills. There are three types of training that apply to units of 60, 120 and 180 day-readiness. The defence budget in the financial year 2023 is more than 2% of GDP.

Czech Republic

The Association of Reserve Brigades


The Czech Republic is a member of NATO since 1999. The Military is since 2005 fully professional force with reservists being practically divided into two categories. First category is strategic reserve, that is all who served in conscript service up till 2004 and are under the age of 60 or ex-professionals that are under the age of 60 and are not part of active reserve. The second is Active Reserve component of the military. The Active reserve can be joined in several ways, re-enlistment of ex-conscript service members, by contract requirement of professional servicemen or by voluntary joining. The active reserves are serving in either territorial reserve units managed by Regional Military Commands of the country or with respective active-duty units that have organized their reserve units. The primary task of the territorial reserve units is force protection, protection of key infrastructure and other tasks in supporting the needs of the Regional Military Command and its tasks. The primary mission of reserves embedded in professional army units is naturally the same as their mother units and is managed by the respective unit command. The training of reserves is fully in the management of the respective units and commands and is managed by the standard training curricula of the Czech Armed Forces. The commitment for service in the Active Reserve component is generally 3 years and is renewable upon agreement. Military expenditure (% of GDP) in Czech Republic was reported at 1.4341 % in 2021, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources.


Reserve Forces Association of Denmark


The Danish Reserve Force consists of personnel from the Reserve and volunteers in the Home Guard. The Danish Reserve Force can, with individuals and larger or smaller units: constitute an element in the organization of a combined force, step in to replace tasks in the Armed Forces or step in to take care of other temporary tasks. Defence reserve - Reserve personnel have a contract with the Armed Forces for service alongside their primary civilian employment. They have either completed reserve training in the Armed Forces or were previously employed there. Personnel from the Reserve can replace permanent employees in the Armed Forces or handle temporary tasks. Volunteers in the Danish Home Guard - Volunteers in the Home Guard have a contract with the Home Guard for voluntary, unpaid service in the Home Guard units. The Home Guard can set up smaller units, which can be made available for the Armed Forces' tasks. As an example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Reserves and volunteers from the Home Guard were deployed across a wide spectrum of tasks throughout society. It applies to both groups that the service is dependent on the individual's time and opportunities to carry out military training and military task solving alongside civilian work and personal life. Size of the Danish Military: 20,000 professional soldiers 4,500 conscripts 16,000 in the Home Guard and the Reserve For the time being it is 1.3% with planned growth towards 2.5% in 2033.


The Estonian Reserve Officers’ Association


For a small country like Estonia, only a comprehensive approach to defence can guarantee the country’s security. That is achieved by total defence - all means will be employed to anticipate and prevent any possible military action against Estonia. If needed, military forces will be combined with non-military capabilities. Estonian defence stands on two pillars - NATO’s collective defence and initial self-defence. To ensure initial self-defences, the Estonian Defence Force is a reserve force with a small professional core element. Mandatory conscription is to remain the primary means for manning reserve units and also as a source for recruiting regular members to the Defence Forces. The Estonian Defence League is organized as a territorial voluntary defence organization. More than 4000 persons are in permanent readiness which in turn is part of EDF’s rapid response readiness (ca 29 000 persons altogether). Another 4000 are in supplementary reserve. In addition, there are more than 30 000 reservists who have been trained in the Estonian Defence Force. In total, The Estonian Defence Force comprises of about 230 000 persons who are enrolled on an mobilisation register. The length of conscript service can be from 8 to 11 months and it allows to prepare annually up to two BN equivalents of trained combatants. Subunits (signal, recce, antitank, mortar, engineer, air defence and MP) are prepared according to unit assembly plans. A selected few will be trained to become reserve NCO´s and officers´. At the end of every training cycle a BDE level EX will be conducted, where units will be evaluated. High readiness units will be called up for refresher training 2-5 years after conscription. For planned exercises, they will get 120-day advance notice of the MoD order. For additional training exercises, 24-hour notice will be given on the government´s decision. Soldiers can be called up to 14 days, NCOs up to 21 days and officers up to 30 days at time. As of 2012, the defence budget or the Ministry of Defence governing minimum amount is 2% of the gross domestic product. This supports the military national defence with balanced and sustainable development as well as meeting the NATO recommended military expenditures. In 2021, defence spending increased to EUR 645.5 million, which is 2.29% of projected GDP.


The Finnish Reserve Officers’ Association


The defence of Finland’s territory is based on the large reserve created by general conscription. Every male Finnish citizen aged 18 to 60 is liable for military service, and women can apply for military service on a voluntary basis. Annually, the Army’s eight brigade-level units alone train around 20 000 conscripts. The Finnish Navy turns approximately 3400 conscripts into reservists every year, and the Air Force around 1300. All persons liable for military service start from the same line and depending on the given training, military service takes 165, 255 or 347 days. Conscripts that are being trained as reserve officers, non-commissioned officers and for most demanding rank and file special tasks serve for 347 days. Less than 10% of the conscripts are trained to become reserve officers. All those selected to undergo leadership training will take the NCO Course Phase I. After this, those undergoing training to become reserve officers will continue to the Reserve Officer Course, and the prospective non-commissioned officers will take the NCO Course Phase II. The Reserve Officer Course will last for 14 weeks. The Finnish Defence Forces’ reserve comprises approximately 900,000 Finnish citizens and the wartime strength of the Finnish Defence Forces is 280,000 soldiers. This strength is resupplied by other reservists as applicable. Refresher exercises, which maintain reservists’ skills, involve thousands of reservists each year.


National Union of Reserve Officers


The operational reserves comprise 77,000 people, 7,000 of whom are employed every day which makes 30 days of annual activity on the average. The distribution of ranks follows that of the regular army. 17% officers, 39% non-commissioned officers and 44% rank-and-file military personnel. The guidelines for the use of reservists are managed by the Human Resources of each force (Land 30%, Air 8%, Navy 8%, Services 5%, Gendarmerie 40% and National Police 9%) and are grouped together by the Joint Delegate to the Reserve Armies (he will also define the number of participants in CIOR). Only a few dozens of reservists under OPEX are foreseen to be outside the country. Women represent 20% and men 80% of the total number of reservists. Their operational jobs are at all levels of command, in internal surveillance operations as well as in operations Résilience or Sentinelle alike. In 2022-2023 UNOR will work in close cooperation with the Minister of the Armies to succeed in its mission to double the number of operational reserves to 170,000 people.


Association of Reservists of the German Armed Forces


Reservists support the Bundeswehr in its entire range of tasks. Since the suspension of the compulsory military service, reservists have particularly become important for the operational readiness of the Bundeswehr. Since then, their service has been voluntary. They ensure the build-up and sustainability of the armed forces in times of crisis. The Bundeswehr distinguishes between the “Allgemeine Reserve” (general reserve), “Truppenreserve” (Troop Reserve) and “Territorialer Reserve” (Territorial Reserve). Reservists who are not scheduled for a specific duty post in the Bundeswehr be-long to the General Reserve. Many of them are very committed to act as mediators for the Bundeswehr in society and keep themselves updated on the topics of military and security policy. Ordered reservists regularly return to the armed forces, they perform reservist service. While reservists are on duty in the armed forces, they are equal to active soldiers with all rights and duties. As a possible field of application, they could be deployed to one of the 404 district and county liaison commands, which, for example, act as a coordination point between the Bundeswehr and civilian institutions in the event of natural disasters. They could also be active in one of the territorial defense companies that will be re-organized into six home-land defense regiments in the coming years. All these reservists belong to the Territorial Reserve. Other reservists fill in for active soldiers in times of absence or deployment or are ordered into supplementary units that are activated by the Bundeswehr when needed. These serve to reinforce the active units and thus form a basis for the Bundeswehr's ability to grow. The reservists who choose this kind of assignment belong to the Troop Reserve. A total of just under 183,000 soldiers are currently serving in the Bundeswehr. By 2025, this number is expected to grow to 203,000, plus 66,000 civilian personnel. Currently, about 29,000 reservists are serving in regular exercises. The Bundeswehr's demand for reservists, however, measures around 60,000. For the coming years, up to 90,000 service posts for reservists are desired. An essential prerequisite for the operational readiness of the reserve is a training structure and organization that is already functional in peacetime in order to enable the training and exercise of the units. Additional training structures are currently being established. The German Federal Republic in 2023 had a defense budget of 50,1 Bil€, not including additional 8,4 Bil€, which were provided by the separate assets that were decided in the context of the “Zeitenwende” (new era) in 2022. The VdRBw receives out of this Budget around 23 Mio€ for operational costs.


Supreme Panhellenic Federation of Reserve Officers


The basic components of the Hellenic Army are Arms and Corps. The former is responsible for combat missions and the latter for logistical support. It is organized in Commands, Formations, and Units with the main being brigade, division, and corps. The Hellenic Navy incorporates a modern fleet consisting of strike units, such as frigates, gunboats, submarines and fast attack guided missile vessels and multiple types of support vessels. The Hellenic Air Force incorporates a modern aircraft fleet and congruent structure, combined with a comprehensive air defence system that consists of a widespread network of anti-aircraft weapons. The structure, which is overseen by the Air Force General Staff, includes the Tactical Air Force Command, the Air Force Support Command, the Air Force Training Command and a number of other independent defence units and services. The Reserve Forces consist of: The career Reserve (retired) Officers; All Reserve Officers up to the age limit for their rank*; The medical Officers and orderlies according to the age limit of their specialty*; All soldiers after their discharge from the Armed Forces and up to the age of 45 years; All those lawfully exempted from the military service of ages between 41 and 50 years. *Eligible as members of S.E.A.N. The manning of the active Greek Armed Forces is based mainly on the system of compulsory service for all men, when they become 18. The same system applies also to the Reserve Forces. Each man who has completed his national service is registered, according to applicable legislation and the existing staff planning, in the Reserve Forces and is obliged to report at the pre-assigned unit or regiment for training or service reasons. Reserves Vs Active Duty / CATEGORY PERCENTAGE : ACTIVE DUTY 25-30 %; RESERVE FORCES 70-75 % Male & Female Reserves: Male 100%; Female 0% Reserve Forces (Female reservists are not included in the mobilization plans (not even ex-regular) Active personnel - 142,700 Reserve personnel - 221,350 The Reserve Forces’ personnel is comprised, mainly, of reservists who in their majority have recently completed their regular service and consequently have retained their knowledge and capabilities attained in the handling of various armament systems and means. Reservists are also participating in several refresher exercises and maneuvers. The frequency of the refresher training is once every one to three years. The criteria on which the selection is being based, depend on the level of readiness of the mobilized unit to which the reservist is assigned. The assignments given to the reserves vary according to the category, rank, and specialty of each reservist. In 2008, Greece spent 2.8% of GDP on its military, which translated to approximately €6.9 billion (US$9.3 billion). In 2008, Greece was the largest importer of conventional weapons in Europe and its military spending was the highest in the European Union relative to the country's GDP, reaching twice the European average. Data for the 2017 fiscal year showed an estimated expense of €4.3 billion in constant 2010 prices, or €4.2 billion in current prices, equivalent to 2.38% of GDP (+0.01 change since 2016). For the 2018 fiscal year, the expenditure was estimated at €4.3 billion in constant 2010 prices or €4.1 billion in current prices, equivalent to 2.27% of GDP (-0.11% change since 2017)


Association of Hungarian Reservists


The HDF’s strategic level joint command is the HDF Command (HDFC), which is directly subordinated to the MoD. There are two operational level commands directly subordinated to HDFC: the HDF Transformation Command (HDF TC) and the HDF Territorial Defence and Support Command (HDF TDSC), both established in 2020. The HDF TDSC is responsible for developing the Volunteer Reserve System (VRS) and its units are almost exclusively reserve forces designated for territorial defence. The basis of the current VRS was created between 2010 and 2012 as a result of the NATO Active Engagement and Modern Defence Strategy 2010. The national legislature decided to create an 8,000 strong volunteer reserve force (Voluntary Operational Reservists – VOR and Voluntary Defence Reservists – VDR). In 2012 the newly accepted Fundamental Law stated that “Hungary maintains a voluntary home defence system”.In 2016 a new reserve force with Voluntary Territorial Reservists (VTR) was set up. In 2020 the new National Security Strategy declared a “Whole-of-government” approach in order to strengthen the defence, deterrence, and resilience capabilities of the country with a tighter cooperation between the military and non-military sector. The new National Military Strategy (2021) determined the up-to-date role of the territorial defence forces. In the future VRS will be reviewed and consolidated according to new requirements. The HDF’s maximum peacetime strength is 37,650 troops, not including the 20,000 voluntary reserve personnel. The detailed subdivision of the HDF’s positions granted by the regulations is shown below: – Active personnel: Officers: 6,600, NCOs: 10,200, Privates: 13,200, Officer candidates: 800; NCO candidates: 250, Civilian employees: 6,600. – Voluntary reservists: Voluntary Operational Reservists (VOR): approx. 6,000, Voluntary Defence Reservists (VDR): approx. 2,000, Voluntary Territorial Reservists (VTR): approx. 11,000, Voluntary Military Service (VMS): approx. 1,000 troops. The VOR personnel were created to reinforce the active units with special knowledge. The VDR personnel are employed by a state-owned enterprise (HM EI Co.) as armed security guards of military facilities but in case of a special legal order they can serve as reserve soldiers. The VTR personnel fill Territorial Defence Regiments’ (TDR) positions, which are (except their staff officers and instructors) exclusively reservists. Currently there are two TDRs but the establishment of additional five regiments is in progress. The VMS pilot project launched in 2021 provides an opportunity for Hungarian citizens to undertake voluntary 6-month military training. The basic training system in HDF consists of individual and collective training. The first part of the individual training takes 5+1+2 weeks (5 weeks basic training, 1 week admin and 2 weeks basic infantry training). The second part of individual training is a three-month specialized training at parent units. The main objective of VDR (military guards) was to renew the guarding system of HDF. The basic training for VOR who did not get any military training previously takes 25 days. VOR members who already have military service experience get only a 4-day training to refresh their military knowledge. HDF provides a special training form for VTR called Module Training System (MTS) consisting of 10 modules that are equal with the first five weeks of basic training. The defence expenditure of Hungary has been growing year by year from 2015 and it is estimated that Hungary will reach the 2% by 2023. In 2022 the approved defence expenditure was about 1000 billion HUF (approximately 2.5 billion USD).


The National Union of Reserve Officers of Italy


The “Selected Reserve” is a particular Component of the Italian Armed Forces, belonging to the Military Reserve composition. It is composed exclusively of Officers, possessing particular professional skills of interest not fully available within the Armed Forces, to meet any operational, training, and logistical requirements. The Italian Army, Navy and Air Force possess this Component. Since 2015, the Selected Reserve is also present in the Carabinieri Corps. It is made up of men and women who have declared their willingness to serve integrated with career soldiers or volunteers in pre-fixed service, holding the rank of officer. Officers no longer in service, belonging to the “complement”, as well as persons with no military experience, may apply to be part of the selected reserve. For both categories, the requirement is the possession of special skills, generally university degrees or high specialization combined with documented and solid professional experience. The voluntary “completion forces” are a component of the Italian armed forces constituting the military reserve. They are made up of members of the troop category and the category of graduates on leave, and differ from the selected reserve, of which only officers can be a part. In order to become a member, one must produce a declaration of availability, which entails inclusion in a special list from which, in relation to the functional and numerical needs of the individual armed forces and compatibly with the allocated resources, the figures of interest are selected, which are useful for filling any shortages that may arise in the workforce. The total number of military personnel of the Italian Army, Navy and Air Force is 167,043, broken down as follows: Army: 95,511, Navy: 30,427, Air Force: 41,105. To these must be added the Carabinieri: 109,576 (land component having special gendarmerie functions military police functions, and as part of the integrated defence of the national territory) and the Guardia di Finanza 63,443 land component having economic-financial police functions, also integrated in the defence of the national territory. The “Selected Reserve” is a particular Component of the Italian Armed Forces, belonging to the Military Reserve composition. It is composed exclusively of Officers, possessing particular professional skills of interest not fully available within the Armed Forces, to meet any operational, training and logistic requirements. Officers are recalled to service only in case of necessity by the armed force to which they belong, but in peacetime they may still serve for a period of even more than six months a year. There is currently no requirement to recall significant numbers of non-commissioned officers and troops to the units. Should this occur, the basic training will take place at the Reggimenti Addestramento Volontari (RAV). The duration of the training is ten weeks. Physical education tests, intermediate and final tests on military subjects and practical tests will contribute to growth and training during this basic training period. Thereafter, a further eight weeks of combatant preparation will take place. With the approval of the Parliament Italy has increased its military spending in 2022 aiming to increase the percentage of GDP to be allocated for defence. The target is 2% of GDP - according to the agreements made at the NATO Summit in 2014. Italy has committed to increasing its Defence spending towards this goal by stable increase over time.


Latvian Reserve Officers Associations


Conscription abolished in 2007 Latvian National Armed Forces consist of the Regular Force, National Guard and Reserve. Armed Forces active strength c.5500 active duty soldiers, 8000 national guards, 7900 registered reserve soldiers NATO member since March 2004 Military Spending is 2.25% of GDP in 2023


Lithuanian Armed Forces Reserve Association


Conscription ceased in 2008 but reinstated in 2015 Navy, Army and Airforce active strength c.23,000 plus 28,000 reservists NATO member since March 2004 Member of Baltic States Cooperation Grouping Military Spending is 2.52% of GDP in 2023


Organization of Reserve Officers of the Republic of North Macedonia


The Organization of the Reserve Officers of the Republic of Macedonia (ORORM) is a non-partisan, independent, military-professional and non-profit association of citizens that carries out activities in accordance with: Article 132 of the Law on Defense of the Republic of North Macedonia, which states: "In the implementation of defense training and preparations for sending members of the reserve forces of the Army to perform tasks in peace operations outside the territory of the Republic, the Ministry of Defense can cooperate with the Organization of Reserve Officers of the Army of the Republic of Macedonia. To implement the activities from paragraph 1 of this article, members of the organization of reserve officers of the Army of the Republic of Macedonia wear the uniform and insignia of the Army"; and The organization is entrusted with public authority by the Ministry of Defense, to carry out the training of reserve officers for participation in the defense of the Republic of North Macedonia. The main goal of ORORSM is to act organized, continuously and in cooperation with the competent authorities as to prepare its members to perform the tasks in the defense system of the Republic of North Macedonia with success.


The Federation of Reservists’ and Veterans’ Associations


The Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova consist of the National Army under the Ministry of Defence and the Carabinieri Troops under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The National Army is composed of the Land Forces Command and the Air Forces Command. Until 2012, the Moldovan Border Troops (today’s civilian Border Police) were also part of the Armed Forces. Due to insufficient funding over the years, the Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova are facing equipment shortages. The equipment that Moldova's military has dates back to the Soviet era and is in need of urgent replacement. In 2022, during the Russian war in Ukraine, various Western countries pledged to support Moldova's territorial integrity and provide energy and military aid. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova have 7,500 active-duty personnel. The trained reserve consists of around 60,000 reservists. The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Moldova can mobilize more than 250,000 persons in case of need. The enrolment and training of the reservists is organized in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, and the Law on the Training of Citizens for the Defence of the Country. The training of reservists is mainly organized at the Military Departments of the Universities and within the military units. The Armed Forces Reserve is divided into: (a) trained reserve, consisting of citizens who have completed military service, have completed the training courses at the training center's of the reserve of the Armed Forces or have completed the full training course at the military departments of the Universities. b) untrained reserve, consisting of citizens who are fit for military service, but who have not fulfilled their military service obligation before reaching the age of 27. Soldiers and NCOs are in the reserve until age of 55, officers up to 65 years old. Up until 2022 the defence budget of the Republic of Moldova was not more that 0.37% of the GDP, which was one of the smallest military budgets in the world and was not sufficient for developing efficient defence capabilities. Expenditures for the National Defence sector will grow in 2023 by almost 70% compared to 2022 and will for the first time in the last two decades constitute 0.5 % of the GDP. This is determined by the security threats faced by the Republic of Moldova due to the war caused by Russia in Ukraine.


Royal Association of Dutch Reserve Officers


There are 4 branches, 3 of which (Navy, Army Air Force) are under operational command of the CDS (Overall Commander of the Armed Forces), a 4* general. The 4th branch (Military Police) has a different line of command, due to its special legal status. All branches are composed of regular military personnel, reserve military personnel and civilians. As stated above the Netherlands Armed Forces are transitioning into a Total Force, where there is no difference anymore between regular and reserve soldiers. However, this goal has not been reached yet. The Netherlands Armed Forces comprises 68,500 Personnel (41,500 Regular Military, 20,300 Civilians and 6,700 Reservists). Divided over the branches: Navy: 11,500 (7,700 regular, 2,600 civilians, 1,200 reservists) Army: 23,800 (16,300 regular,3,300 civilians, 4,200 reservists) Air Force: 8,200 (6,500 regular, 1,000 civilians, 700 reservists) Military Police 7,600 (6,520 regular, 760 civilians, 320 reservists) Support and Overhead 17,400 (4,480 regular, 12,640 civilians, 280 reservists). The support and overhead units/departments are staffed with persons from all 4 branches. Since the suspension of conscription, all military personnel are volunteers. Regulars are full-timers and reservists are part-timers. Basic military training is more or less the same for all, but further training is dependent on task and function. Training of reservists is individualized and dependent on the function and is the responsibility of the unit commander. At least once a year, every soldier (independent of rank or grade) has to prove that both his/her basic military skills as well as his/her physical fitness are meeting the required standards. This yearly test is also the responsibility of the unit commander. Due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine this year, the government has decided to increase investment in the Armed Forces in the next few years as follows: 2022: € 14.808 million = 1.61 % of GDP 2023: € 15.751 million = 1.68 % of GDP 2024: € 19.382 million = 2.03 % of GDP 2025: € 19.566 million = 2.01 % of GDP 2026: € 18.034 million = 1.83 % of GDP


The Norwegian Reservists Association


The Norwegian total defence concept was developed after the Second World War and has since then been a cornerstone in the defence planning in Norway. It has been developed throughout the years and covers today both the civilian support to the defence and the armed forces’ support to the civilian society in social security. In addition to the total defence concept, the Norwegian defence stands on 3 pillars – NATO’s collective defence, strong bilateral cooperation, and initial national self-defence. The Norwegian Armed Forces consists of a large number of reserves in addition to the professional core. In Norway reservists are personnel who are obliged to serve but are not constantly serving in the Armed Forces, and being a reservist is not voluntary. Mandatory conscription is the primary means for manning reserve units and reinforcing the regular units. Every male and female (Since 2015 - born 1997 and later) Norwegian citizen must undergo military service, and will be part of the reserve. A small number of the reserves is part of the active reserve, i.e., reservists of all ranks earmarked for the different units as a mobilization supplement and who are trained and practiced in their wartime position and units. The largest numbers belong to the Home Guard that forms a part of the Norwegian Armed Forces. Approximately 25,000 personnel are part of the permanent structure in the Norwegian Armed Forces. In addition, the active reserve consists of approximately 50,000 personnel who are trained and ready. After one year as conscript (OR1), eventually after having finished a contract as private soldier, NCO or officer, soldiers are called upon to serve as reservists until they are 44 years old; officers and NCOs until they are 55 years old. Most of the reservists, belonging to the Home Guard, go through annual refreshment training of until nine days for officers and NCOs and six days for private soldiers. Some reservists, usually belonging to the Army, Air Force and Navy, take their refresher training as a part of larger exercises. The refresher training is based on The Conscription Act, and the maximum time for training, including the service as conscript, is 19 months. After being selected for conscription, the conscripts have an enrollment period for 2-3 days, including medical examination, safety regulations etc. Then they start a 6-8-week period to learn basic military skills related to weapon handling, combat technique, physical training, and close order etc. Thereafter the conscripts take the rest of their 12-month conscription period training as part of different military units together with professional soldiers. After the 12-month period the conscripts will be able to take part in operations nationally and internationally with their respective units. During the last decade the real term increase in Norway’s defence expenditures has been close to 2.2 percent, and it is set to increase further in 2023 and 2024.


Federation of Associations of Reservists and Veterans of the Polish Armed Forces


Fully contracted Armed Forces plus Reserves Navy, Army and Airforce active strength c.164,000 plus 200,000 reservists NATO member since 12th March 1999 Military Spending is 4.2% of GDP forecast in 2023


The Portuguese Reservists’ League


The Portugese Reservists’ League is the first civil/military association devoted to organising the activities of the Voluntary Reservists in cooperation with and with the support of the Portuguese Armed Forces and NATO Alliance. We are assuming for the first time in Portugal “the role of the Reserves in the rear”. The following procedures are the Reservists’ day-by-day off-duty engagements. Our country needs us again now in order to be resilient and win “the battle of the arguments”. The Voluntary Reserve is managing 6 Voluntary Reservists’ programs developed in each municipality spread all over the continent and islands, supported by the Chief of Defence and the three Military. -1- Program with NATO and CIOR, named “Voluntary Reservists as NATO Ambassadors in their own communities”. -2- Program with the Portuguese Chief of Defence “Citizenship and Armed Forces”. -3- Three Programs have been established involving the first group of Voluntary Reservists, in February 2012 with the Chief of Staff of the Portuguese Navy, in July 2012 with the Chief of Staff of the Portuguese Army and in 2017 with the National Maritime Authority. -4- Program with the National Defence Institute (IDN), which organizes courses training Reservist instructors and their own Auditors. -5- In their own communities, Voluntary Reservists participate with other local cultural associations, and with the support of the local Municipality, in Heritage Programs and Military Tourism tours. -6- Military Program of Generation Exchange. After the conscription system was abolished in Portugal, and beyond Regular Forces serving in the three military branches, the actual most common non-regular system of military service is called the Contract Regime. It can be extended to up to six years of active service. Although, more recently, it has been extended for some most needed specialties. The reserves in Portugal are also the last serving years of the Regular Service personnel. And we have two recruitment regimes that have never been used and are actually being regulated: the Recruitment Reserve for those that have never attended military service; and the Disposal Recruitment for those who served and can be called again. All Voluntary Reservists have already accomplished their contractual years or a full career in the military service, they are authorized to wear their military uniform using the last rank that they were promoted to, before leaving active service and they are certified by the Armed Forces. So, the Voluntary Reserve in Portugal includes all military personnel actually involved regularly in a voluntary basis, participating in one or more of the above-mentioned 6 programs, actively collaborating with the Portuguese Armed Forces, and are members of the association LRP, or even, being members of other military associations, they must have got protocols signed with the LRP, for this specific purpose. In 2021, the Portuguese military active service personnel amounted to 27,250, and the Reserves, out of active service, included 211,700 persons.


Romanian Reserve Officers’ Association


The Romanian Armed Forces consists of central structures and joint forces. Central structures comprise different political-military departments within the MoD, the Defence Staff and the National Military Command Centre (nucleus). During the special states of besiege, mobilization and war, this nucleus will become full Strategic Command. The joint forces include: Joint Force Command, Land Forces, Air Forces, Naval Forces, Special Operations Forces Command, Joint Logistic Command, CIS Command and Cyber Defence Command. Reserve Forces are designed to complement the active forces and fulfil niche tasks and missions. According to Law No 446/2006, the Reserve Forces consist of Operational Reserve, General Reserve and Reserve for Public Services. The Operational Reserve incorporates active reservists (those who have been trained in the military until 2007), voluntary reservists (according to Law No 270/2015) and supplementary reservists (to replace the reservists not presented at their units and compensate for human losses). Size of the military is 73,350 active personnel and 79,900 reservists. According to Law No 115/2021 to amend Law No 270/2015, voluntary reservists are obliged to attend a three-month training programme, prior to signing the contract. After signing the contract, the mandatory training period is 15 days per year at the military unit to which they have been assigned. The other types of reservists are considered to be fully trained and can be asked to participate at different training programmes only in case of special states of emergency. At the MoD level there is an initiative to modify Law No 446/2006 for introducing a new category of military personnel – the conscript military volunteers. This new category will include those who do not have military training as active service personnel or reservists. They are to attend a four-month basic training programme. Starting from 2015, when the new National Political Agreement to Increase Defence Expenditure was approved by all governing parties, the Romanian Defence Expenditure gradually increased to 2% in 2017 and was supposed to continue to remain as this until 2027. But the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the emerging NATO Summit in Brussels convinced our political decision-makers to increase the defence budget to 2.5 % for next year.


Slovenský zväz vojakov v zálohe


Conscription ceased in 2006 Army and Airforce active strength c.19,500 Military Spending forecast is 1.75% of GDP in 2023 NATO member since 29th March 2004


Slovenian Officers’ Association


The Slovenian Armed Forces or Slovenian Army (SAF; Slovenska vojska; (SV) are the armed forces of Slovenia. Since 2003, it is organized as a fully professional standing army. The Commander-in-Chief of the SAF is the President of the Republic of Slovenia, while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Currently there are approximately 6,254 active troops and approximately 766 in reserve, reduced from 55,000 personnel during conscription. The Slovenian Armed Forces are organized as single-branch armed forces with the army as their primary component. The personnel are divided into three categories: professional soldiers (full-time soldiers), contract reserve soldiers (serve up to 30 days per year), voluntary recruits (basic training). The Slovenian army currently maintains one military airport Cerklje ob Krki. Slovenian Air Force and Air Defence and Slovenian Navy are a part of the Slovenian Armed Forces. They are an integral part of the command structure, not an independent branch. In 2004 Slovenia made the transition from compulsory military service to fully professional armed forces - voluntary military service system (active duty service, voluntary military service, voluntary reserve and strategic military reserve). Strategic military reserve is composed of the military conscripts. Law on Military Duty provides the reintroduction of compulsory military service and conscript military system in case of conflict or war. Voluntary reservists sign a contract for 5 years with the possibility to extend the contract. The voluntary contractual reservists (men and women from 18 years to 55 years /soldiers and NCOs/ and up to 60 years for officers) can be called up to perform military service for a maximum of 7 months a year (on request up to 12 months). Like their professional counterparts, their contracts oblige them to be able to deploy outside national territory. Basic military training is 13 weeks, unit training according to the annual training program up to 3 months per year. Military tasks consist of short time tasks (3-5 days /3-5 times per year), and military service in peacetime 1 to 12 months (maximum). The new concept of basic military training (BMT) is 13 weeks (used to be 14 weeks), composed of 3 phases: 1 – 5w, 2 – 6w, 3 – 2w. It is possible to take all 13 weeks of BMT at one go or by phases. Expenditure: budget 548 million EVR, 1.22% of GDP (2019).

South Africa

South African Reserve Force Council


South African Defence Force renamed South African National Defence Force in 1994 Navy, Army and Airforce active strength c.74,000 and 15,000 Reserves Military Spending forecast is 0.86% of GDP in 2023 The South African Reserve Force Council is a statutory body recognised in the Defence Act of South Africa, and was created during it’s new democratic dispensation to advise the Minister of Defence on Reserves issues. Its Council is drawn from a wide background of experience and represents both substantial experience in military and reserve issues and also in civilian commercial and social affairs. In the period since its formation the scope of the Council's activities has grown substantially gaining associate membership of both CIOR and CIOMR, establishing MOUs with the UK and Italy and associate membership of the Nordic Praesidium. The Council initiated a Training and Education Programme for potential young reserve officers in South Africa which has also provided a pathway for the most successful candidates to attend the CIOR Young Reserve Officers Workshop at CIOR's Summer Congress. The SA RFC has also for many years sponsored the South African Military Competition, based closely upon the CIOR Competition which has attracted teams not only from many African nations but also from other CIOR member nations. The SA RFC has also worked with the UK in delivering Training and Education for the BATLS Casualty Handling System for the SANDF. South Africa as a non aligned non - NATO Country brings a different dimension to particularly CIOR's affairs which challenges some of the established thinking bringing a different dimension to many issues including those on the battlefield.


Spanish Reservist’s Organizations Federation


There are three main Defense branches: Army, Air Force and Space, Navy. There is also a big group of specialists managed directly by the MoD and deployed in the different armies. The so called “Cuerpos Comunes /Common Services), includes medical, legal, economics, musicians. Another very significant military corps, the Guardia Civil, (police with military structure) and management shared between MoD and MoI. Sizes: 125 000 – 130 000 active forces and 14 000 reserves of different origins: Army 80 000, Navy 22 000, Air Force 22 000, Common Services 3 000, Guardia Civil (Police with military structure and affiliation) 75 000. Reserves mainly comes from former regular members. Apart from that, there are around 4.000 voluntary reservists most of them with specialized skills. There is not a fixed training program for a reservist once he or she succeed with the initial education and training. Some years ago, there were a lot of courses offered to reservists: NRBC, Armored Units, CIMIC but nowadays there are not very many courses for reservists. Reservists are mainly called on duty for real service on regular units and there are not reserve units - nowadays the training is basically during the service. Promotion is not linked to training or education. Only years in the same rank and days of service on duty are considered. Budget: Historically less than NATO requirements, but from Ukraine war, things are changing. For 2022 increased 25% and 2023 will increase another 25%. It means around 1,2% of GDP, with the commitment to spend 2% in 2029.


The Swedish Reserve Officers’ Association


The Swedish Armed Forces are subordinated to the Swedish parliament and government. The Armed Forces are comprised of units from all service branches, the Army, Navy and the Air Force, and also includes the Home Guard and the National Security Forces. In peacetime, the Swedish Armed Forces are based at more than 70 different locations across our country. Reserve officers in the Swedish Armed Forces perform similar tasks as other officers. The main difference is that reserve training is entirely focused on the position as a leader or commander of a combat unit. An officer in the reserve shall have (or be intending to obtain later) a civilian academic degree. Reserve officers have another primary occupation but serve periodically with the Armed Forces. As of 2021 the number of personnel serving in the Swedish Armed Forces totaled approximately 25,000 in active duty, 11,000 in part-time duty. Roughly 7,000 were reserve officers. On average around 350 reserve officers are active every month, including service abroad, for example deployed with the United Nations, EU and NATO (numbers from 2021 and 2022). The total number of Home Guard and voluntary personnel was approximately 20,000. The Swedish Armed Forces are enlarging their organisation and the numbers are planned to increase in the upcoming years. There are two separate programmes for reserve officers. ROU is a one-year training course to become a reserve officer, which qualifies the graduates to be employed as officers in the reserves. To be accepted for the training, the individual must be qualified for a higher rank and have successfully concluded basic training with military services (or equivalent military training). The second programme is AROU, which is conducted over 20 weeks, either over two summers or in one term. This training is intended for experienced NCOs, soldiers, and sailors. To be accepted for the AROU training programme one must be qualified for a higher rank and have successfully concluded basic training with military services (or equivalent military training). The unit commander has the authority to promote reserves to OF2. To be promoted to OF3, training at the Swedish Defence University has to be completed. In order to be promoted to higher ranks, a civilian education at an advanced level is required and a corresponding senior position within the Armed Forces. For the past few years, Sweden’s annual military expenditure has been around 1.2 % of GDP but will, from 2022, gradually increase to around 2.0 % of GDP by 2028 at the latest. 2.0 % of GDP would equal 12.5 billion USD (2021). Furthermore, more than 75,000 Swedish military personnel have meritoriously served worldwide from the start of the Second World War until today and a significant part of them have been reservists. Finally, on 18 May 2022, Sweden and Finland handed in their respective applications for NATO membership. Whenever the memberships are ratified by all NATO member countries, CIOR has already decided that Sverof and its Finnish sister organisation will become full members.


Swiss Officer Association


Due to Switzerland's system of general conscription, the term «reserve officer» does not correspond exactly to the general understanding. The just under 3,000 active full-time (regular) military personnel are complemented by around 140,000 active reservists of all ranks (effective numbers). By Swiss law, every male citizen is called for duty in the armed forces. Hence, people refer to Switzerland as not having an army, but being an army. After basic training, all Swiss soldiers, non-commissioned officers and officers complete an annual refresher course of three to four weeks with their units - until the prescribed number of days of service has been achieved. For a soldier the duty is 280 days, for a sergeant 440 days and for a junior officer 680 days. All senior officers serve an additional 240 days for each promotion in rank. Whether compulsory service for women is introduced depends on a political decision. With staggered battalion-level refresher training evenly distributed throughout the year, at least one unit can be called up for disaster response or other support operations within a short period of time at any time. The system of graduated readiness also enables the armed forces to respond and mobilize quickly and in a tailored manner if the case of a threat or danger requires additional forces. This means that only those units whose performance is actually required are mobilized. In peacetime, the «Chief of the Armed Forces» is responsible for the leadership and development of the Swiss Armed Forces. Currently, Lieutenant-General (3*) Thomas Süssli holds this function. Only in the event of war, a «General» (4*) will be elected as Commander-in-Chief by the united Federal Assembly (Council of States and National Council).


Türkiye Emekli Subaylar Derneği


Conscription 6 months Navy, Army and Airforce active strength c.425,000 and 200,000 Reserves NATO member since 1952 Military Spending forecast is 2.1% of GDP in 2023

United Kingdom


The UK is one of the founding members of NATO and also contributes to a number of other collective Defence Agreements around the world. Both Regular and Reserve Forces in UK are entirely voluntary, there is no Conscription. The Reserves are seen as an integrated and integral part of the UK Armed Forces. For example, the recent conflict in Afghanistan saw more than 6,000 Reservists mobilised which is the equivalent of more than 6 infantry battalions. It is highly unlikely that the UK would now deploy on Operations without Reserve participants who can provide up to 10% of the deployed force on enduring operations. The Royal Navy is (at time of publication of this book) 34,130 Regular Personnel, 4,040 Reserves (includes Royal Marines), 7,960 Royal Fleet Auxiliary. The Army 79,380 Regular Personnel, 4,090 Gurkhas, 28,330 Reservists. The Royal Air Force 33,200 Regular Personnel, 1,940 Royal Auxiliary Air Force, 3,300 Reserves. Each of the Reserve Services has its own established system of Phase 1 (Basic or Initial Recruit) Training for newly joined Reservists, thereafter Reservists follow courses for Phase 2 (Career Employment) Training and Phase 3 (further courses in profession and to gain promotion) Training. Officer entrants follow a process of Selection for Commissioning and then attend Courses at the relevant Service Officer Training Establishment. Promotion and progression are similarly linked to courses and promotion examinations, including attendance at the UK’s Joint Staff College. Presently (2022) 2.3% of GDP, with an intent to increase in 2023/24 to 2.5%.

United States of America

Reserve Organization of America


The US President, as the commander-in-chief of US military forces, exercises control of the Active and Reserve Components (Total Force) through the civilian service secretaries, the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combatant Commanders. The Total Force may be employed by single- or multi-service components in joint, combined, or coalition operations. The US military current strength is 1,358,500 in the Active Component, 799,500 in the Selected Reserve—including 444,300 in the National Guard—and 231,000 in the Inactive Ready Reserve. In 1973 the US ended its draft. Since then the Total Force has been all voluntary. Enlistees complete basic training followed by advanced training in their military specialty. The length of training depends on the branch of service and specialty. The shortest training period is 16 weeks, accounting for at least 40% of the tasks required for a specialty, with the balance of skills attained upon return to the individual's unit. Reserve Officers are commissioned through service-specific channels; e.g.: US Military Academy; Reserve Officer Training Corps as part of a 4-year college degree program, or Officer Candidate School program. Career schools may follow as officers advance in rank. Reserve unit training comprises an annual minimum of 48 training assemblies and one 14- or 15-day period of annual training. But, since 1992, the training requirements and operational deployments for the reserves have increased greatly. US DOD's fiscal year 2022 base budget is $742.3 billion, representing 3.4% of GDP, with additional defense related funding bringing the total to about $778B, along with $6B in general transfer authority for unforeseen needs. An additional $14.3 billion has been added for such things as the war in Ukraine. DOD does not provide any monetary support to ROA.

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